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Ancient Mining Tools from Cyprus


A brief history of copper mining in Cyprus

The island of Cyprus bears some of the richest copper ore deposits in Europe. They are located in the geological formation of the pillow lavas, which forms a ring around the Troodos Mountains1 (fig. 1a). The copper smelting started during the third millennium BC. Evidence for the export of copper in the Middle Bronze Age is provided by texts dating to the 19th – 17th c. BC from Babylon, Mari and Alalakh, which refer to copper from Alashiya, the name by which the island was known to her neighbours in the Bronze Age.2 The earliest unequivocal evidence of prehistoric mining also dates to this period. This comes from the Ambelikou mine where, in 1942, the modern miners intersected ancient underground workings where pottery dating to the Middle Bronze Age (c. 2100-1650 BC) was found.3 They also reported the discovery of “stone axes and rounded stones with holes” but, unfortunately, they were not kept or recorded with photographs.4 Nearby, at the site of Aletri, the settlement where these miners would have lived was briefly excavated. Among the stone tools discovered onsite many were identified as tools for the processing of the ores.5 Unfortunately, since the Turkish invasion of the island in 1974, the site and the mine are beyond the effective control of the Republic of Cyprus and therefore no further fieldwork has been done. 

In the Late Bronze Age (c. 1650 – 1050 BC), copper production and export greatly intensified.6 Excavations have brought to light a primary smelting workshop at the site of Politiko-Phorades7and numerous copper workshops within the coastal urban centres, the most important of which was Enkomi on the East coast8 (fig. 1b). The copper produced on the island was cast into ingots (mainly of the oxhide type)9 and exported. Such ingots have been found across the Mediterranean, in the Balkans, in Germany, in Egypt and as far east as Babylon. According to lead isotope analysis, they are consistent with a provenance from the Apliki ore deposit.10 When modern mining was launched at Apliki in the 1930s, a mining settlement dating to the Late Bronze Age was discovered.11 However, like at Ambelikou, only a limited rescue excavation was undertaken there and the site has since been destroyed, because of opencast mining in the 1960s. Among the finds from the settlement were three perforated stone hammers, which must have been used for ore processing as has been suggested in other mining regions such as Timna and Sardinia.12

Map of Cyprus showing the geological formation of the pillow lavas where copper ore deposits are located, 
the main copper mines and the ancient slag heaps (the size of the triangle is related to the size of the slag heap).
Fig. 1a. Map of Cyprus showing the geological formation of the pillow lavas where copper ore deposits are located, the main copper mines and the ancient slag heaps (the size of the triangle is related to the size of the slag heap).
Map of Cyprus showing the geological formation of the pillow lavas and ancient sites mentioned in the text
(Map prepared by V. Kassianidou with digital geological data provided by the Cyprus Geological Survey).
Fig. 1b. Map of Cyprus showing the geological formation of the pillow lavas and ancient sites mentioned in the text (Map prepared by V. Kassianidou with digital geological data provided by the Cyprus Geological Survey).

In the first millennium BC, Cyprus was divided into city kingdoms.13 It is very difficult to define the political boundaries of the Cypriot Iron Age polities, due to constant renegotiations between the kingdoms. However, it is important to note that most of them have copper mines at a distance of less than 15 km from their capital.14 It is thus believed that their economy and wealth was based on the exploitation of the copper and there is plenty of evidence showing that copper mining and smelting increased even more in this period and throughout the 1st mill. BC.15 After a complex period where Cyprus was vassal to the political powers competing for dominance in the Near East, the island became part of the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt, after the death of Alexander the Great.16 The island was governed from Paphos by a strategos appointed by the king of Egypt. An inscription referring to the Antistrategos Potamos son of Aegyptus, administrator of the mines, may indicate that the strategos was in charge of the mines.17 In 30 BC, after the death of Cleopatra, the last Ptolemaic queen, the island became a roman province which was put under the rule of the Senate by the emperor Augustus.18 As in other Roman provinces, the Cypriot copper mines were directed by a procurator.19 We owe this valuable information to the Roman doctor Galen who visited the island in 166 AD, in order to collect minerals to produce medicaments.20 In his books De Antidotis and De Simplicium Medicamentorum Temperamentis, he left rare eyewitness accounts of what he saw in the mines he visited near the ancient city of Soloi, one of the Iron Age city kingdoms.21 The mines near Soloi include, apart from Ambelikou and Apliki, Mavrovouni and Skouriotissa. The latter is the location of the largest ancient slag heaps on the island, and one of the largest known elsewhere for this period.22 Recent fieldwork at the Skouriotissa slag heap, as well as other slag heaps around the island, has shown that the Late Roman/Early Byzantine period, namely the 4th-7th c. AD, was actually the time when copper mining and smelting had reached industrial levels.23 I have argued that this is probably related to the split of the Roman Empire and to the need of the Eastern Empire, better known as the Byzantine Empire, to have access to large quantities of metal, having severed its ties with the copper-rich Iberian Peninsula and other copper-rich regions in Central Europe.24 At the end of the 7th c. AD, the copper industry comes to an abrupt end. The reasons are still unclear. It was probably a combination of dramatic events, e.g. Arab invasions, climate change, several breakouts of the plague, and perhaps an over-exploitation of the forests25

For more than a thousand years the mines lay abandoned. At the end of the 19th c. AD, Cyprus came under the rule of the British Empire and there was a renewed interest in the exploitation of the copper ore deposits.26 The fact that the ancient sources often mentioned Cyprus’ wealth in copper is what led an American prospector, by the name of Charles Godfrey Gunther, to come to the island in 1912 and to visit Skouriotissa.27 He soon started exploration drilling and managed to discover one of the richest ore deposits on the island. In order to exploit Skouriotissa, a new company, the Cyprus Mines Corporation (CMC), was registered in New York City and expanded greatly in Cyprus and all over the world.28 The company stayed active on the island until the Turkish invasion in 1974, finally closing down all operations in 1976.29 Eventually other mining companies also start the exploitation of several copper ore deposits.30 The most important of these is the Hellenic Mining Corporation (HMC). Most mining activities ceased by the 1980s. The only exception is the mine of Skouriotissa, which was exploited by Hellenic Copper Mines until recently.

Ancient mining tools from Cyprus

The mining resumption revealed the ancient works and within them tools of the ancient miners. Thanks to the interest of James Latimer Bruce, a mining engineer who served as the resident director of CMC from 1925 to 1935, the ancient works were noted in the plans of the mine and the objects found within were collected. Bruce, in collaboration with D.M. Creveling, presented the information he gathered in a paper published in 1937, as an Appendix to the third volume of the “Swedish Cyprus Expedition”, a corpus recognized as the foundation of the field of Cypriot Archaeology. The paper entitled “Antiquities in the mines of Cyprus” includes information regarding the ancient mining technology, the plans and the sections of the ancient adits, and photographs of the mining tools and the slag heaps. Although other studies have since been published,31 the fact that the ancient mines have been largely destroyed because of opencast mining, together with the fact that little work has been done in the field to record them, means that more than eighty years later, Bruce’s publication remains the most comprehensive study of the ancient Cypriot mines. 

This is why a recent research project, entitled “Skouriotissa: Interdisciplinary study of the archaeology and environment of Cyprus’ last operating copper mine” and coordinated by the author, was launched. The aim of the project is to record the history, archaeology and ancient environment of the mine of Skouriotissa.32 An effort was made to collect as much information on the ancient and modern history of the mine, from the national archives and from the personal archives of the modern miners.

Among the scopes of the project was the study of the mining tools recovered from the mine of Skouriotissa and other mines exploited by CMC, such as Mavrovouni, Apliki and Mathiatis. The objects once formed a collection that was kept in the headquarters of CMC in Skouriotissa and were catalogued by an officer of the Department of Antiquities in 1951.33 When the company ceased operations in 1976, the objects were given to the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus. Some of them were put on display in the Cyprus Museum together with artefacts from the private collection of Nikos Charalambides, a mining engineer and director of the Kambia Mines company and others from the collection of the Hellenic Mining Corporation (HMC) which were also donated to the Department of Antiquities. The assemblage is unique in that it includes artefacts made of organic materials, which usually do not survive in archaeological sites in Cyprus. The aim of this paper is to present the different types of mining tools recovered but the restrictions regarding to the size of this publication does not allow extensive discussion. This will be published later on together with the results of radiocarbon dating of some of these objects that we were allowed to sample.

Wooden supports

The most common find from the ancient mines were the wooden supports of galleries and vertical shafts. They are described in detail by Bruce and therefore will be left out of the current discussion.34 These wooden supports were often impregnated by metallic copper.35 Thus they were greatly cherished and collected by the modern miners who used them to produce furniture and ornaments. 

Stone hammers and iron picks

The most characteristic mining tool from prehistoric mines is the grooved hammer. According to Rickard: “Mr Gunther had found six stone hammers of crude form, and a stone axe, all of these having been made of boulders gathered in the river below”.36 In his paper, Bruce mentions that stone hammers were also found in other mines such as Sha and Mitsero.37 A stone pick was recently recovered during works by the Hellenic Copper Mines company at Skouriotissa but its context was not recorded38 (fig. 2a). A grooved hammer was found at the Mathiatis mine and is illustrated in a photograph published by Bruce.39 Research in the National Archives of the Republic of Cyprus revealed a letter sent by Bruce to the then director of the Department of Antiquities, A.H.S. Megaw, requesting the export of the stone hammer together with an iron gad or moil also depicted in the same photograph.40 The permission was given, but only after a plaster copy of the stone hammer was made.41 This is still available for study at the Cyprus Museum (fig. 2b). Such grooved hammers are known from all over Europe.42 The discovery of the mummy of a miner in the copper mine of Chuquicamata, Chile, usually referred to as the “Copper man”, and his tools which included grooved hammers, as well as other such hammers found in the same mine, have offered a rare view of how these hammers would have been hafted.43 while experimental archaeology has shown how these may have been used.44

Various mining tools. a. Stone pick from Skouriotissa. b. Grooved hammer from Mathiatis. c. Iron pick 
from Mathiatis. d. Iron pick from Skouriotissa. e. Iron gad or moil from Skouriotissa (Photos V. Kassianidou).
Fig. 2. Various mining tools. a. Stone pick from Skouriotissa. b. Grooved hammer from Mathiatis. c. Iron pick from Mathiatis. d. Iron pick from Skouriotissa. e. Iron gad or moil from Skouriotissa (Photos V. Kassianidou).

The iron pick is one of several iron tools that were found in the CMC mines.45 It is currently in the collection of Cypriot Antiquities of Harvey Mudd College which has recently been donated to the University of Cyprus46 (fig. 2c). Other examples were given to the Department of Antiquities in 1976. One is a large iron pick,47 weighing 3.5 kg and measuring 29 cm in length (fig. 2d). It also has a circular perforation but it is longer and heavier. According to the list of artefacts produced in 1951 this was also found in Mathiatis.48 The smaller one49 is 14 cm long and weighs 677 g. It was found in Skouriotissa mine in a surprisingly good condition because according to Bruce it was embedded in iron sulphates, which protected it50 (fig. 2e). This is a gad rather than a pick, namely a tool that was intended to be struck by a hammer in order to break the ore.51 Similar tools are known from Thasos52 and the mine of La Loba, Spain.53 The iron picks are very similar to examples from Thasos,54 Rio Tinto,55 from the mines of Sierra de Cartagena56 and Tresminas.57 At Skouriotissa was also found a fragmentary iron hoe or rake58 which presumably would have been similar to a much better preserved example from Rio Tinto.59 Comparable iron tools are described and depicted by Agricola.60

Monoxyle/notched/chicken ladders

In his paper, Bruce mentions the discovery of several monoxyle ladders carved out of single logs of wood which he calls chicken ladders. Two were found at Mavrovouni mine (fig. 3a). They were of a type used in vertical raises, as their steps were perpendicular to the long axis of the piece of timber61 (fig. 3b). Two more were found at Skouriotissa mine but their steps were inclined (fig. 3c). According to Bruce this shows that the ladder would have to be used at an angle of 30o degrees from the vertical.62 Unfortunately, it is not known what happened to these ladders – they were not recorded in the 1951 list of artefacts in the offices of CMC and they were not among the finds returned to the Department of Antiquities in 1976. Fortunately, Bruce published some photographs, which I located in D.M. Creveling’s archive and I reproduce here (fig. 3).

a. Monoxyle ladder from Mavrovouni. 
b. Steps in the Mavrovouni ladder are perpendicular to the long axis. c. Steps in the Skouriotissa ladder are at an angle. (Photos from D.M. Creveling archive).
Fig. 3. a. Monoxyle ladder from Mavrovouni. b. Steps in the Mavrovouni ladder are perpendicular to the long axis. c. Steps in the Skouriotissa ladder are at an angle. (Photos from D.M. Creveling archive).

Creveling commented that “these ladders would be pretty hazardous even when using both hands, and would be even more difficult when trying to carry something”.63 Nevertheless, monoxyle ladders were commonly used in ancient mines. According to O’Brien, such notched ladders are known from the Mitterberg mines, Chinflon and Derrycarhoon.64 An example was also found in Coto Fortuna, Mazarrón65 and at the mine of Aljustrel.66 More than a dozen well preserved monoxyle ladders were found in the gold mine of Rosia Montana.67 Finally, such ladders are also depicted in Japanese scrolls that show miners working at the gold mine of Sado.68

Wooden shovels

Charalambides donated two wooden shovels69 to the Department of Antiquities, which presumably he had found in the mine of Kambia (fig. 4). They are both carved out of a single piece of wood. Wooden shovels have been found in mining regions all over the world such as Laurion,70 the Mitterberg mines,71 Aljustrel,72 Alderley Edge73 and Mount Gabriel.74 A wooden shovel was among the tool kit of miners from Chuquicamata, and similar shovels have also been found in other mines in Chile.75

Wooden shovels, baskets, ropes, wooden handles and two windlasses from the mines of Cyprus (Photos V. Kassianidou).
Fig. 4. Wooden shovels, baskets, ropes, wooden handles and two windlasses from the mines of Cyprus (Photos V. Kassianidou).

Baskets, wooden handles and ropes

The ore would have been carried to the surface in baskets (fig. 4). Several baskets were discovered in the mines of Mavrovouni, Skouriotissa and Mathiatis.76 A basket77 filled with ore was given to the Department of Antiquities by the Hellenic Mining Corporation (HMC) and may be the one listed by Manglis (who worked for HMC) among the finds found in their mines.78 Two more baskets79 were donated by Charalambides and presumably come from the mine of Kambia. In an unpublished report80 George Chrysostomou, who used to work for CMC, includes a photograph of a basket that was found in Apliki mine but its current whereabouts are unknown. Finally, Zwicker includes a basket that was found in Limni mine among several finds which he had radiocarbon dated.81 The basket was found to date to 275 ±60 AD.82 At least two examples are still filled with copper ore. Most examples preserve only the lower part of the basket. They are made out of thin branches of bushes or trees and are woven just like baskets found in local markets today. Traditionally these baskets are made with thin branches from the terebinth tree (Pistacia terebinthus), the mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus), the mulberry tree (Morus Alba), the wicker tree (Vitex agnus castus) or the myrtle (Myrtus Communis).83

Baskets were of course essential parts of the miner’s toolkit all over the world. A well-preserved basket filled with ore was found in Mazarrón.84 Remains of a basket may have been found in Cwmystwyth.85 The “Copper man” from Chuquicamata also had baskets and more examples were found in other mines of Chile.86 Finally, baskets are depicted in one of the pinakes from Penteskouphia, Corinth that shows men digging for clay (rather than mining as had been interpreted in the past).87 The use of baskets in the mines is clearly diachronic and it is not surprising that they are included in the miner’s toolkit presented by Agricola.88

Three notched wooden sticks89 are among the artefacts from the CMC collection and are probably those listed as coming from the mine of Mathiatis in 195190 (fig. 4). One more91 was among the finds in the Charalambides collection. Finally, one example is known from the private collection of Angelos Tsirides92. They must have been handles for the baskets as they are very similar to the handle of an esparto-grass bucket from Aljustrel.93

Several pieces of rope of different widths were found in Mavrovouni mine94 (fig. 4). One of the pieces was 4,5 m long and was made of three twisted strands.95 In his unpublished report, Chrysostomou states about the discovery of a rope measuring 6 m in length, 20 mm in diameter, which  was knotted at about 30 cm intervals. He argues that the rope was probably used as a handhold by miners for climbing in and out of the mine shaft. Several pieces of rope from the CMC collection were given to the Department of Antiquities.96 Pieces of rope were also among the finds of Mr Charalambides collection.97 Two of them98 are knotted and the others range in length from 24 cm to 5 cm. Finally, there is a rope from the HMC collection (HMC 11). 

The ropes would have been used together with the baskets and windlasses or pulleys, examples of which have also been found, to bring the ore to the surface. Ropes were found in Mazarrón and one example depicted in Gossé’s paper appears to have knots.99

Windlasses and pulleys

A well preserved wooden windlass was found in Mavrovouni mine.100 According to Creveling this was found inside a cribbed raise in association with a considerable amount of well-preserved rope. Such a set up is illustrated by Agricola, although in his case the windlass is on the surface101. Based on the size of the windlass, Creveling calculated that it would have been used to hoist something over a distance of only 4,5-4,8 m.102 A similar windlass.103 was donated to the Department of Antiquities by CMC and must be the one included in the 1951 list and described as coming from Mathiatis104 (fig. 4). According to George Chrysostomou other windlasses that measured 60 cm in length and 25 cm in diameter at the centre were found in the mines of CMC but they are not included in the CMC collection and I have not been able to find any photos. Among the artefacts donated by Charalambides, there are two windlasses. One has a preserved length of 55 cm105 and the other has a preserved length of 57cm and bears a square perforation106 (fig. 4). Another fragmentary windlass107 is among the finds of HMC. It has a preserved length of 41 cm. All three are more similar in shape to windlasses illustrated by Agricola.108

Wooden windlasses are known from the mines of Cartagena,109 Algares,110 and Aljustrel111 where pulleys112 have also been found.

Wooden troughs

A piece of trough or launder was found in Mavrovouni mine.113 This was found in the underground in the 400 level of the mine where the windlass was also found. It was made of a single rounded timber of about 9 cm diameter where a v-shaped cavity was carved of just a few centimetres depth. The preserved length was about 65 cm.114 It is not among the finds that were given to the Department of Antiquities. The collection of the Department of Antiquities, however, includes a wooden trough of 102 cm length that was found in one of the mines of HMC.115 Unfortunately, this has now deteriorated completely.

Troughs were probably used to control the flow and drain the mine water. In the case of Cyprus, we know that this water was valuable and was collected in amphorae and was then left to evaporate in square ceramic basins or troughs so that the copper sulphate salts could be collected and used for the preparation of medicaments. This is what Galen was looking for when he visited the mines of Soloi. He describes the process in great detail.116

Wooden troughs are known from other mines around Europe. Some of them were used for water management and draining, like the examples from Copa Hill, Cwmystwyth dating to 1800 BC,117 Aljustrel118 and Mitterberg.119 In other mines, such as at Mauk in Austria, wooden troughs dating to the 9th c. BC were used for ore beneficiation.120

Plates, bowls and lamps

A rather astounding group of finds from the Cypriot mines are the wooden bowls of different shapes and sizes (fig. 5). They were found in the mines of CMC,121 the mines of HMC122 and the mine of Kambia.123 They act as reminders that the miners spent a long time underground and would have had their meals there. In fact, there is evidence that in some mines they actually lived underground. In a paper discussing the mines in the area of Cassandra, Chalkidiki, Greece, Sagui states: 

Wooden plates and bowls from the mines of Cyprus (Photos V. Kassianidou).
Fig. 5. Wooden plates and bowls from the mines of Cyprus (Photos V. Kassianidou).

Their subterranean abodes are still visible; large abandoned stopes were utilized as kitchens and sleeping chambers, where traces remain of fire places, and holes still open in the country rock were used as cupboards or lamp niches. Rough drawings are sometimes found, among which large suns are frequent, as if those laborers had desired to recall to their imprisoned bodies that the soul at least was always free and might, after all, remember that the real sun was shining somewhere.124

We know very little about the ancient Cypriot miners, but based on Galen’s descriptions, at least in the Roman period, they were slaves. Like in other mines these slaves worked under difficult conditions, Galen describes the stifling air underground. He also says that some slaves had lost their lives in the mine when the galleries they were working on caved in.125

Ceramic lamps provided light in the underground galleries. Galen states that there were lamps in regular intervals on both sides of the wall in the inclined adit he used to enter the mine he visited.126 Such a set up was observed when ancient galleries were discovered in the 20th c. AD. According to Bruce: 

Rough steps have been cut in many of the inclines and many galleries have small recesses cut on one or both sides at the elevation of the waist line of a man of average height. These usually consist of a relatively flat shelf with sides and roof of recess sloping downward to the shelf from the wall of the gallery. The shelves usually occur at intervals of 5 or 6 feet along the gallery and it is assumed that they were used for support of small lamps as driving of the gallery progressed.127

Ceramic lamps are among the finds that were given by CMC and HMC to the Department of Antiquities but it is impossible to know whether they were collected in the mine such as those mentioned by Bruce128 or whether they come from tombs that were found in the region around the mine.


Thanks to mining engineers such as J.L. Bruce and D.M. Creveling who worked for the Cyprus Mines Corporation, C.P. Manglis who worked for Hellenic Mining Corporation and Nikos Charalambides who owned Kambia Mines, ancient mining tools found in the copper mines of Cyprus were collected and preserved. Without their foresight, these would have been lost forever and our knowledge of the ancient mining would have been extremely limited. The objects from these three collections include artefacts which are made of wood and other organic materials which in itself is extraordinary, as such finds do not survive in other Cypriot archaeological sites. The study of this rich assemblage showed that they are similar to finds from ancient mines in Europe and beyond, from as far away as Chile and Japan, revealing that there is a convergence in the materiality of the ancient mining. 


It is a pleasure to contribute to this festschrift in honour of Béatrice Cauuet. Although we have not (yet?) had the opportunity to collaborate, I have known and admired her work for years. She has made a significant contribution to mining archaeology and this is a fitting tribute to her. May she continue to work and reveal the secrets of ancient mines in the years to come. The research presented here was undertaken within the framework of the project entitled “Skouriotissa: interdisciplinary study of the archaeology and environment of Cyprus’ last operating copper mine” that was funded by a University of Cyprus A.G. Leventis Foundation Research Grant. I would like to thank the Director of the Department of Antiquities Dr Marina Solomidou Ieronymidou for granting me permission to study this material. Archaeological officer Eutychia Zachariou and technician Chrysanthos Chrysanthou made the study possible even in the difficult times of the Covid-19 pandemic when significant and varied restrictions were in place. I thank them both sincerely.


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  1. Constantinou 1992a, 52; 1992b, 329.
  2. Knapp 2011, 250.
  3. Merrillees 1984, 6-10; Webb & Frankel 2013, 25-28.
  4. Webb & Frankel 2013, 25-28 ; Webb 2015, 25.
  5. Webb 2015, 34.
  6. Kassianidou 2013a. 
  7. Knapp & Kassianidou 2008.
  8. Muhly 1989; Kassianidou 2013a; 2016.
  9. Kassianidou 2008-2012, 9. 
  10. Gale 1999, 120.
  11. Du Plat Taylor 1952; Kling & Muhly 2007; Kassianidou 2018a.
  12. Kassianidou 2007, 280, Plate 76.
  13. Stylianou 1992, 382-383, 388; Iacovou 2014, 805-807.
  14. Kassianidou 2013b, 71.
  15. Kassianidou 2013b, 69.
  16. Hill 1940, 148-156.
  17. Michaelidou-Nicolaou 1976, 101.
  18. Hill 1940, 230.
  19. Kassianidou 2000, 752-753.
  20. Michaelides 2011, 94.
  21. Walsh 1927, 101-105; Kassianidou 2000, 748.
  22. Kassianidou 2013c, 120-130.
  23. Kassianidou 2013c, 133; Socratous et al. 2015, 382.
  24. Kassianidou et al. 2021.
  25. Kassianidou 2022, 218-219.
  26. Cullis & Edge 1927, 46.
  27. Rickard 1930, 287; Lavender 1962, 46-49.
  28. For the history of CMC see Lavender 1962.
  29. Constantinou 1992b, 341-342.
  30. Constantinou 1992b: 342-345.
  31. e.g. Koucky & Steinberg 1982; Weisgerber 1982; Constantinou 1992a; Kassianidou 2000.
  32. Kassianidou 2021.
  33. Kassianidou 2018b, 586-588.
  34. Bruce 1937 653-657.
  35. Bruce 1937, 650.
  36. Rickard 1930, 290.
  37. Bruce 1937, 660-661, fig. 362.
  38. Georgakopoulou & Kassianidou 2013, 241, fig. 3.20.
  39. Bruce 1937, 665, fig. 374.
  40. Kassianidou 2018b, 591-594.
  41. Inv. 1936-VII-17/1.
  42. See examples in Rothenberg & Blanco Freijero 1981, 165, fig. 70, fig. 71, fig. 75, fig. 76, fig. 80; Domergue 1990, Pl. XV; O’ Brien 2015, 192, fig. 7.20, 207, fig. 8.5.
  43. Bird 1979, 114, fig. 4. Figueroa et al. 2013, 71-75, fig. 7, fig. 8, fig. 10.
  44. Timberlake & Craddock 2013, 50-52.
  45. Bruce 1937, 662.
  46. Kassianidou 2021, 101.
  47. Inv. 1976-I-20/41.
  48. Kassianidou 2018b, 587.
  49. Inv. 1976-I-20/37.
  50. Bruce 1937, 662, fig. 365.
  51. Healy 1978, 100.
  52. Healy 1978, Pl. 16b.
  53. Domergue 1990, Pl. XVIa and b.
  54. Healy 1978, 84, Pl. 16a.
  55. Healy 1978, 100, Pl.29a.
  56. Domergue 1990, Pl. XXIIIb.
  57. Wahl-Clerici 2020, 114, fig. 3.1 – fig. 7a-d.
  58. Inv. 1976-I-20/35; Bruce 1937, 663, fig. 363.
  59. Craddock 1995, 74, fig. 2.35.
  60. Hoover & Hoover, 149-150.
  61. Bruce 1937 658, fig. 347 – fig. 348.
  62. Bruce 1937, 661-662.
  63. Bruce 1937, 658.
  64. O’ Brien 2015, 217.
  65. Gossé 1942, 54, Lamina V 6.
  66. Healy 1993, 145, fig. 58 ; Domergue 1983, 18, 37, fig. 13.
  67. Cauuet 2014, 94, fig. 6.
  68. Healy 1978, 83, Pl. 12 ; Healy 1993, fig. 9; Mathias 2013, 297, fig. 10.2.
  69. Inv. CH3 and Inv. CH4.
  70. Conophagos 1980, 177, Plate 9, Plate 10.
  71. Pittioni 1951, 26, Plate IV.3, Plate VII.1.
  72. Domergue 1983, 23, 37, fig. 16.
  73. Smith et al. 2011, fig. 1.
  74. O’Brien 2015, 209, 217, fig. 8.7.
  75. Figueroa et al. 2013, 67, 69, 74, Table 2, fig. 2.3, fig. 9.
  76. Inv. 1976-Ι-20/57a-e ; Bruce 1937, 653, 659, 662, fig. 360, fig. 363, fig. 364.
  77. Inv. HMC12.
  78. Bruce 1937, 660.
  79. Inv. CH18 and Inv. CH19.
  80. I would like to thank Mr George Chrysostomou for giving me access to his unpublished report entitled “Ancient mineral exploration and exploitation”.
  81. Zwicker 1986, 102.
  82. Radiocarbon sample number H 8990-8922.
  83. Ionas 2001, 488.
  84. Gossé 1942, 53, Lamina IV.
  85. O’Brien 2015, 217, fig. 8.14.
  86. Figueroa et al 2013, 68, Table 2, fig. 2, fig. 8.
  87. Healy 1978, 77, Plate 8.
  88. Hoover & Hoover 1950, 153-154.
  89. Inv. 1976-20-I/16a, Inv. 1976-20-I/16b and Inv. 1976-20-I/17.
  90. Kassianidou 2018b, 587.
  91. Inv. CH9.
  92. Kassianidou 2011, 194. 
  93. Gossé 1942, Lamina VI ; Healy 1978, 101, fig. 32c.
  94. Bruce 1937, 653, fig. 352.
  95. Bruce, 1937, 658.
  96. Inv. 1976-I-20/11a, Inv. 1976-I-20/11b, Inv. 1976-I-20/58.
  97. Inv. CH20, Inv. CH21, Inv. CH 22, Inv. CH23, Inv. CH24, Inv. CH25.
  98. Inv. CH20 and Inv. CH21.
  99. Gossé 1942, 55, 57, Lamina III.
  100. Bruce 1937, 653.
  101. Hoover & Hoover 1950, 123.
  102. Bruce 1937, 658, fig. 351, fig. 352.
  103. Inv. 1976-20-/19.
  104. Kassianidou 2018b, 587.
  105. Inv. CH2.
  106. Inv. CH16.
  107. Inv. HMC33.
  108. Hoover & Hoover 1950, 161.
  109. Orejas & Antolinos 1999, Dossier II 2B.
  110. Domergue 1983, 14, 37, fig. 33.
  111. Allan 1970, 15.
  112. Healy 1978, Pl. 33a, Pl. 33b ; Domergue 1983, 15, 37, fig, 14.
  113. Bruce 1937, 653.
  114. Bruce 1937, 658-659, fig. 353.
  115. Inv. HMC42.
  116. De Temp. Fac. Simp. Med. 9 – Wallace & Orphanides 1990, 227.
  117. Timberlake & Craddock 2013, 35-36, fig. 3; O’Brien 2015, 220, fig. 8.17.
  118. Domergue 1983, 23, fig. 13.
  119. Pittioni 1951, 27, Plate IV.1.
  120. Schibler et al. 2011, 1262, fig. 4; O’ Brien 2015, 180, fig. 7.13.
  121. Inv. 1976-I-20/12 and Inv. 1976-I-20/15.
  122. Inv. HMC 39+40.
  123. Inv. CH14.
  124. Sagui 1928, 675.
  125. Wallace & Orphanides 1990, 227.
  126. De Temp. Fac. Simp. Med. 9; Wallace & Orphanides 1990, 227.
  127. Bruce 1937, 649.
  128. Bruce 1937, 653, 660, 663.
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Kassianidou, Vasiliki, “Ancient Mining Tools from Cyprus”, in : Meunier, Emmanuelle, Fabre, Jean-Marc, Hiriart, Eneko, Mauné, Stéphane, Tămaş, Călin Gabriel, Mines et métallurgies anciennes. Mélanges en l’honneur de Béatrice Cauuet, Pessac, Ausonius Éditions, collection DAN@ 9, 2023, 29-41, [en ligne] https://una-editions.fr/ancient-mining-tools-from-cyprus [consulté le 27/10/2023]
Illustration de couverture • de Paul Cauuet
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